Please do not use passim, op. Cit, ibid. or vague page ranges, e.g. 283f and 283ff.
|Type of reference||Text citation||Notes|
|Single author||(Grayson 1983: 10)|
|Two authors||(Grayson & Evans 2010: 10)|
|Three or more authors||(Grayson et al. 2009: 25)|
|More than one work by same author||(Grayson 1983, 2009)|
|More than one work by same author and same year||(Grayson 1983a, 1983b)|
|More than one work by different authors||(Grayson 1983; Evans 2009)||In date order|
|More than one work by one author and different authors||(Grayson 1983, 2009; Evans 2009)||In date order|
|Personal communication||pers. comm.|
|Classical or historical author||Bede (HE I.15; Colgrave & Mynors 1969) Pausanias (Description of Greece 3.19.7; Jones 1931)||See note below under citing Classical and historical sources|
Please ensure that all references cited in the text are included in the bibliography.
Page numbers should be cited wherever possible.
Full references should be listed alphabetically at the end of the paper. For detailed guidance please see the example references below.
References with the same first author should be given in the following order:
Author names should be given in SMALL CAPS. If you are unable to submit using SMALL CAPS please use normal text. Please do not use standard capitals.
Use the minimum forms of page numbers, i.e. the shortest way one could speak the figures: 23-24, 13-14, 115-16, 200-201.
Since we do not have a separate reference list of primary sources, refer to the Classical author in the text, then bracket with the work in italics, then chapter, section, line, verse etc. following standard conventions, followed by semi-colon and then editor/translator of the work and the edition consulted. e.g.
Common shorthand titles are acceptable, e.g. Historia Ecclesiastica may be abbreviated to HE.
If an author wrote only one work, Herodotus 9.1 rather than Herodotus, Histories 9.1 is acceptable.
For Classics, standard abbreviations are listed at the front of the Oxford Classical Dictionary.
Please ensure that all references listed in the bibliography are cited in the text.
|Type of reference||Text citation||Reference format||Notes|
|Book||Mitchell 1976||MITCHELL, G.F. 1976. The Irish landscape in the twentieth century. London: Collins.|
|Book with a volume no.||Harry 1952||HARRY, W. 1952. London throughout the ages, Volume 1: an early settlement. London: The London Historical Society. or (where there is a further subtitle) HARRY, W. 1952. London throughout the ages: a history of London from 44BC-1950. Volume 1: an early settlement. London: The London Historical Society.|
|Journal paper||Peterson 1990||PETERSON, J.D. 1990. From foraging to food production in south west Ireland: some lithic evidence. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 56: 89-99.||Note not PPS, avoid abbreviations or acronyms|
|Chapter by another author in a book||Mallory & Hartwell 1997||MALLORY, J.P. & B.N. HARTWELL. 1997. Down in prehistory, in L. Proudfoot & R. Haynes (ed.) Down: history and society: 1-32. Dublin: Geography Publications.||ed. not eds. (short for edited, not editors).|
|Edited collection||Mallory 1997||MALLORY, J.P. (ed.) 1997. The British Iron Age. London: Thames & Hudson.|
|Book in a numbered series||Henderson 2003||HENDERSON, J. 2003. Glass-making in Roman Britain (British Archaeological Reports British series 101). Oxford: Archaeopress.||Note no 'no.' is included in the series title|
|Unpublished dissertation (avoid word 'thesis')||Anderson 1994||ANDERSON, E. 1994. Flint technology in the Irish later Mesolithic. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Manchester University.||Title is not in italics as it is unpublished|
|Online publication with no doi||Galaty et al. 2009||GALATY, M.L., W.E. LEE, C. WATKINSON, Z. TAFILICA & O. LAFE. 2009. Fort, tower, or house? Building a landscape of settlement in the Shala Valley of High Albania. Internet Archaeology 27. Available at: http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue27/galaty_index.html (accessed 5 March 2010).|
|Online publication with doi||Galaty et al. 2009||GALATY, M.L., W.E. LEE, C. WATKINSON, Z. TAFILICA & O. LAFE. 2009. Fort, tower, or house? Building a landscape of settlement in the Shala Valley of High Albania. Internet Archaeology 27. doi:10.1177/0269881105058776|
|Website with no author||Ancient Japan n.d.||Ancient Japan n.d. Available at: http://www.japanese-historyonline.co.jp/html (accessed 17 July 2009).|
|In press||Jones in press||JONES, K. In press. The beauty of the English countryside. Oxford: Oxford University Press.|
|Unpublished report||Michaels 2004||MICHAELS, L. 2004. Hadrian's Wall. Report prepared for Northumberland Regional Conservation Agency, Alnwick.||Title is not in italics as it is unpublished|
|Unpublished conference paper||Tweddle 1987||TWEDDLE, K. 1987. The cat in Roman art. Paper presented at the 4th International Conference of Roman Art, Milan, 6-8 May 1987.|
|Newspaper article (with author)||Hodges 2008||HODGES, P. 2008. A view from the West. The Guardian, 1 May 2008, p. 10.|
|Newspaper article (without author)||The Guardian 2008||The Guardian. Considering the past, 10 October 2008, p. 32.||List under 'G' not 'T'|
|Later translations||Hubbard trans. 2004||HUBBARD, E. 1901 (trans. 2004) 1901. A history of South Yorkshire. Translated by J. Proud. Barnsley: Yorkshire Publishing Co.||Place & publisher of the translated version|
|References not using Latin alphabet (translation of title given)||Chekov 2004||CHEKOV, V. 2004. This is the English transliteration of the Russian title [This is the English translation of the Russian title]. Moskow: Nauka.|
|References not using Latin alphabet (translation of title not given)||Chekov 2004||CHEKOV, V. 2004. This is the English transliteration of the Russian title. Moskow: Nauka (in Russian).|
|Reference to Classical author||Horace (Odes 4.1.1-4; Rudd 2004)||RUDD, N. 2004. Horace Odes and Epode (Loeb Classical Library). Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.||Horace does not figure in the references|
|Reference to historic author||'Bede (HE I.15; Colgrave & Mynors 1969)||COLGRAVE, B. & R.A.B. MYNORS. 1969. Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English people. Oxford: Oxford University Press.||Bede does not figure in the references|